Different things melt at different temperatures. Ice cream melts at quite a low temperature. That’s because it contains solid crystals of ice. It melts easily because when it gets warm the ice turns of water. If you heated it enough. the water would turn to steam, which is tiny drops of water, leaving behind just a gooey powder.
When a liquid gets hotter, more and more if turns to gas. Watch that happens to milk when it is heated in a saucepan. You will see little gas bubbles appear as it warms up.
Like water, most things in the world are solid when they are very cold, and melt to liquid when they get warmer. When they get very hot, they boil away to gas (like air).
Liquids have no shape of their own. They take the shape of the container they are placed in.
Colours are really coloured light. So when you see red you are seeing red light. Cherries look red because daylight is all the colours of the rainbow – but the cherry skin has soaked up all the others colors, except red. So a cherry bounces only red light toward your eyes.
If you mix the colours red, yellow, and blue together in different combinations, you can get almost any other colour.
When this wheel spins, the coloured dots blur together to make other colours.
Monkeys and many kinds of birds see colours the same way people do. But some animals can’t see colour at all. Scientists think that crocodiles and dogs see colors as different shades of gray. They also think that bees cannot see the colour red.
It’s fizzy because the gas carbon dioxide is pumped into it. Before you open the bottle, most of the gas is trapped invisibly in the drink. But when you unscrew the top, the gas is released and forms thousands of bubbles.
Making a fizz
Why not try your own fizzy experiment? Add baking powder to water and watch what happens. When it mixes with water, it makes bubbles of carbon dioxide, too.
Some sodas are naturally fizzy. This means they make their own natural gas – like root beer.
The very first fizzy drink was made in 1772, by a British scientist called Joseph Priestly. He hoped he’d mad a medicine. He hadn’t but the drink caught on!.
When you breath out, carbon dioxide is one of the gases in your breath.
What do you give a sick lemon?
Glass is made from sand, a chemical called sodium, and limestone. They are all heated together in a very hot fire until they turn into liquid. The liquid is then cooled a little, and air is blown through it to shape it into things like bottles, jars, and glasses. Machines in factories shape the glass but sometimes people do it by hand.
Some people are especially trained to make wonderful glass shapes. They are called glass blowers.
Different chemicals are added to the hot liquid to colour the glass
The first glass things known, were beads made from rough lumps of glass. That was 4,000 years ago in Asia.
The paints in a paint box are usually watercolors. They are made out of different things such as ground-up colored earth, rocks, and dyes – and then mixture with a gum to hold it all together.
Oil paints are usually made from the same things as water paints, but oil is used instead of water to hold the paint on the paper or canvas. Oil paints dry much more slowly than water paints.
Portraits are pictures of people.
Landscapes are pictures of places.
Still lifes are close-up pictures of every day objects, like fruit.
Run and get a glass of water and put it on the table next to you. Take a good long look at the water. Now — can you guess how old it is?
The water in your glass may have fallen from the sky as rain just last week, but the water itself has been around pretty much as long as the earth has!
When the first fish crawled out of the ocean onto the land, your glass of water was part of that ocean. When the Brontosaurus walked through lakes feeding on plants, your glass of water was part of those lakes. When kings and princesses, knights and squires took a drink from their wells, your glass of water was part of those wells.
And you thought your parents were OLD
To tell other bees where to find flowers filled with sweet nectar. Certain bees are sent out of the hive to look for flowers. Then they come back home and do a dance in shape of a figure 8 to tell the other worker bees where to find the flowers. The bees will use the nectar to make honey.
Buzzy bee facts
It takes nectar from 2,000 flowers to make one tablespoon of honey.
Worker bees can fly at 15 mph, that’s probably as fast as you can go on your bicycle.
Most bees only sting to protect themselves.
Follow the sun
If you draw an arrow through the middle of the “8” in the direction of the sun, you’ll find the nectar – if you’re a bee that is!
What did the mother bee say to the naughty baby bee?